A Git repository is the
.git/ folder inside a project. This repository tracks all changes made to files in your project, building a history over time. Meaning, if you delete the
.git/ folder, then you delete your project’s history.
Generally, users host their repository on online git management providers like Github.com, bitbucket.com, and Gitlab.com. But you can also host your repository on your server without any management tool. This is helpful for small organizations with limited git repositories.
Create User Git as a System user
First, create a new system user, This is a good practice to have a separate user, which will be used to connect repository to the server from client systems.
$ sudo adduser git Adding user git' ... Adding new group git' (1044) ... Adding new user git' (1044) with group git' ... Creating home directory /home/git' ... Copying files from /etc/skel' ... Enter new UNIX password: ********* Retype new UNIX password: ********* passwd: password updated successfully Changing the user information for git Enter the new value, or press ENTER for the default Full Name : Room Number : Work Phone : Home Phone : Other : Is the information correct? [Y/n] y
Create a Bare Repository
Now create a git bare repository. This repository will be used as a remote repository by developers. First, we are creating a project directory. After that, I will create our first git repository named app1.git inside project directory. Try to keep repository name ending with .git for the better naming convention.
$ sudo su - git $ mkdir projects && cd projects $ mkdir app1.git && cd app1.git
Now use following command to initialize repository. Do not forgot to use –bare keyword in command to create bare repository.
$ git --bare init Initialized empty Git repository in /home/git/projects/app1.git/
If you list files inside repository you will not find a directory named .git due to the bare repository, You will see their many files like below.
$ ls -l total 32 drwxrwxr-x 2 git git 4096 Oct 8 12:33 branches -rw-rw-r-- 1 git git 66 Oct 8 12:33 config -rw-rw-r-- 1 git git 73 Oct 8 12:33 description -rw-rw-r-- 1 git git 23 Oct 8 12:33 HEAD drwxrwxr-x 2 git git 4096 Oct 8 12:33 hooks drwxrwxr-x 2 git git 4096 Oct 8 12:33 info drwxrwxr-x 4 git git 4096 Oct 8 12:33 objects drwxrwxr-x 4 git git 4096 Oct 8 12:33 refs
Now you can make a clone of this repository from any clients system using the following command. This will ask for password of git user.
$ git clone [email protected]:projects/app1.git
Question 1 : How can I create a git repository?
Answer : To create a git repository follow the below steps:
- Create a system user running “sudo adducer git”.
- Create a Bare repository.
- Add file into it.
Question 2 : How do I create a git project?
Answer : There are two options first you can use your local repository that is currently not under version control. Second you can clone an exiting repository.
Question 3 : How do I add a fine into git?
Answer : To add a file into git run git add –all or git add . command at the terminal in your local project directory. Now type git status command view the changes.